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[DEPRECATED] Google Sheets Import/Export


This actor is deprecated! It will still work but the development continues in lukaskrivka/google-sheets, please use that instead.

Google Spreadsheet Import & Export Data


Google Spreadsheet is an Apify actor that can be used to either process data in your current spreadsheet or import new data from Apify datasets, crawler executions or from a raw JSON. It can be run both on Apify platform or locally. It is built with Apify SDK, apify-google-auth and googleapis npm packages.

If official Google Spreadsheet API is too complicated for you and you need to just import and export data, then use this Google Spreadsheet actor for import from another sheet or import datasets if you scrape websites using actors or crawlers.

For quick start, see our tutorial for Google Spreadsheet actor.

You can use this actor with any programming language (Javascript, Python, PHP) by calling Apify API.

For deeper understanding how the actor works inside, look at the Google Spreadsheet referrence.


v0.1 => v0.2

  • Fixed bug that if you exceeded the limit of imports per 100 seconds, it deleted the current data in the sheet. Now the actor fails and doesn't delete anything.
  • Cells are now not cleared before importing and they are trimmed only if needed (means less requests needed).

v0.2 => v0.3

  • Reworked how append works. Now it recalculates and repaints all the cells. Also if used with filterByField and filterByEquality, it will filter even the data already in the spreadsheet. And lastly, transformFunction for append needs to return whole data that will be then displayed in the sheet. The reason for this is to fix a problem from v0.2 when sometimes old values could stay where there should be blank cells if the columns were moved.
  • transformFunction now takes an object with newObjects and oldObjects fields instead of having separate parameters. This is changed to avoid confusion which parameter is first.
  • Added exponential backoff (automatic retries) for Google API calls if they return Service unavailable error.
  • Added read mode.

v0.3 => v0.4 (latest)

  • Renamed filterByField to deduplicateByField
  • Renamed filterByEquality to deduplicateByEquality
  • Logs are now more descriptive about what is happening
  • transformFunction input object properties were renamed from oldObjects to spreadsheetData and from newObjects to datasetData
  • Added support to import raw JSON instead of Apify storages


If you exceed these limits, the actor run will fail and no data will be imported.

  • Maximum runs (imports) per 100 seconds: 100


If you want to run the actor on Apify platform you need to open the actor's page in the library and then click on Try in console which will add it to your account. When using public actors, you don't need to build them since everything is done by the author. You only need to provide an input and then you can run them. But keep in mind that usage is always charged towards the one who runs the actor. You can also let it run automatically after every crawler run.

If on the other side you want to run the actor locally, you need to open the actor's github page and clone it to your computer.

Authentication and authorization

If you use this actor for the first time, you have to login with the same Google account where the spreadhseet is located, authorize and allow Apify to work with your spreadsheets. Internally we use our small npm package apify-google-auth. Please check this article how to authorize.

After you authorize for the first time, tokens are stored in your key-value store (option tokensStore which is by default google-oauth-tokens) and you don't need to authorize again. So after the first usage, you can fully automate the actor.

If you want to use more Google accounts inside one Apify account or locally then each Google account needs to have a different tokensStore and you need to track which tokens belong to which account by naming the store properly.


This actor can be run in multiple different modes. Each run has to have only one specific mode. Mode also affects how other options work (details are explained in the specific options).

  • replace: If there are any old data in the sheet, they are all cleaned and then new data are imported.
  • append: This mode adds new data as additional rows below the old rows already present in the sheet. Keep in mind that the columns are recalculated so some of them may move to different cells if new columns are added in the middle.
  • modify: This mode doesn't import anything. It only loads the data from your sheets and applies any of the processing you set in the options.
  • read: This mode simply loads the data from the spreadsheet, optionally process them and save them as 'OUTPUT' json file to the default key-value store.
  • load backup: This mode simply loads any backup rows from previous runs (look at backup option for details) and imports it to a sheet in replace style.

Inner workings

Important! - The maximum number of cells in the whole spreadsheet is 2 million! If the actor would ever need to import data that would exceed this limit, it will just throw an error, finish and not import anything.

Important! - No matter which mode you choose, the actor recalculates how the data should be positioned in the sheet, then updates all the cells and then trims the exceeding rows and columns. There are 2 main reasons for this. First is to be maximally efficient with the number of rows and columns so any unused rows/columns are trimmed of. The second reason is that if the new data have new fields (e.g. bigger arrays) we need to insert columns in the middle of the current columns so everything needs to be recalculated and moved.


Most of Apify actors require a JSON input and this one is no exception. The input consists of one object with multiple options:

  • options<object>
    • mode <string> Any of replace, append, modify, read, load backup. Explained above. Required
    • spreadsheetId <string> Id of your spreadsheet. It is the long hash in your spreadsheet URL. Required
    • datasetOrExecutionId <string> Id of the dataset or crawler execution where the data you want to import are located. This option or rawData is mandatory for replace and append modes and cannot be used in other modes.
    • rawData <array> Array of raw JSON data. Can be either in table format (array of arrays) or in usual dataset format (array of objects). Objects can be nested, arrays not. Raw data cannot exceed 9MB.This option or rawdatasetOrExecutionIdData is mandatory for replace and append modes and cannot be used in other modes.
    • backupStore <string> Id of the store where the previous backup was saved. It is the id of the default key-value store of the run from which you want to load the backup. This option is mandatory for "load backup" mode and not usable in other modes.
    • limit <number> Defines how many items (rows) you want to import. Default: Maximum (currently 250000).
    • offset <number> Defines how many items you want to skip from the beginning. Default: 0.
    • range <string> Defines which part of your spreadsheet will be impacted by the actor. It is specified in A1 notation. Default: Name of the first sheet in the spreadsheet.
    • tokensStore <string> Defines in which key-value store authorization tokens are stored. This applies to both where they are initialy stored and where they are loaded from on each subsequent run. Default: "google-oauth-tokens".
    • deduplicateByEquality <boolean> If true, only unique items(rows) are imported. Items are unique between each other if any of their fields are not equal (deep equality). Only one of deduplicateByEquality, deduplicateByField and transformFunction can be specified! Default: false.
    • deduplicateByField <string> Similar to deduplicateByEquality but uniqueness is checked only by the one specified field which means the rest of the fields maybe different but the item will still not be imported. Only one of deduplicateByEquality, deduplicateByField and transformFunction can be specified! Default: null.
    • transformFunction <string> Custom function that can filter or modify the items in any way. It's requirements and behaviour differs for each mode. Only one of deduplicateByEquality, deduplicateByField and transformFunction can be specified! Default: null
    • createBackup <boolean> If true then after obtaining the data from the spreadsheet and before any manipulation, data are stored into the default key-value store under the key backup. Can be loaded in future run using load backup mode. Useful when you are not sure what you are doing and have valuable data in the spreadsheet already. Default: false.

Importing data

You have two options how you can import data with this actor:

  • From Apify storage - This option is useful for upload data from finished crawlers and actors. Simply provide id of the dataset or crawler execution.
  • In raw JSON form - This option is useful if you want to use this actor as a standalone API to import data to your spreadsheet.

Both these options behave exactly the same in every other means e.g. in modes, transformFunction, deduplication etc.

Raw data import

If you want to send the data in a raw JSON format, you need to pass these data to the rawData input parameter. You will also need to have an account on Apify so we can properly store your Google authentication tokens(you can opt-out anytime).

Raw data can be supplied in two formats. Only depends on your needs which you will use.

Important! - Raw data cannot exceed 9MB which is a default limit for Apify actor inputs. If you want to upload more data, you can easily split it into more runs (they are fast and cheap).

Table format (array of arrays)

rawData should be an array of arrays where each of the arrays represents one row in the sheet. The first row should be a header row where the field names are defined. Every other row is a data row. It is important to have proper order in each array. If the field is null for some row, the array should contain empty string in that index. Data rows can have smaller length than the header row but if they are longer the extra data will be trimmed off. Arrays cannot contain other nested structures like objects or arrays! You have to flatten them in a format where / is a delimiter. E.g. personal/hobbies/0.

"rawData": [
    ["name", "occupation", "email", "hobbies/0", "hobbies/1"],
    ["John Doe", "developer", "", "sport", "movies with Leonardo"],
    ["Leonardo DiCaprio", "actor", "", "being rich", "climate change activism"]

Dataset format (array of objects)

rawData should be an array of objects where each object represents one row in the sheet. The keys of the objects will be transformed to a header row and the values will be inserted to the data rows. Objects don't need to have the same keys. If an object doesn't have a key that other object has, the row will have empty cell in that field.

Objest can contain nested structures (objects and arrays) but in that case it will call Apify API to flatten the data which can take a little more time on large uploads so try to prefer flattened data.


"rawData": [
        "name": "John Doe",
        "email": "",
        "hobbies": ["sport", "movies with Leonardo", "dog walking"]
        "name": "Leonardo DiCaprio",
        "email": "",
        "hobbies": ["being rich", "climate change activism"]


"rawData": [
        "name": "John Doe",
        "email": "",
        "hobbies/0": "sport",
        "hobbies/1": "movies with Leonardo",
        "hobbies/2": "dog walking"
        "name": "Leonardo DiCaprio",
        "email": "",
        "hobbies/0": "being rich",
        "hobbies/1": "climate change activism"

Deduplicate options and transform function

By default the behaviour of the import is straightforward. replace mode simply replaces the old content with new rows, append simply adds new rows below the old ones, modify doesn't do anything (it is only usable with filter options or transform function) and read saves the data as they are to the key-value store. But for more complicated imports that require importing only unique items or any other custom functionality, you need to use one of the following options: deduplicateByField, deduplicateByEquality or transformFunction. Behaviour of each of these options is specific to each of the modes so if you need to do some more complicated workflow it is important to understand the interaction.

  • deduplicateByEquality: Only unique items(rows) are kept in the data. If two items have all fields the same, their are considered duplicates and are removed from the data.
  • deduplicateByField: Similar to deduplicateByEquality but the uniquenes of items is compared only with one field. So if one items has certain value in this field, all other items with this value are considered duplicates and are removed from the data.
    • append: Old and new data is put together and checked for duplicates. Only the first item is kept if duplicates are found.
    • replace: Works like append but cares only about new data.
    • modify: Works like replace but cares only about old data.
    • read: Works the same as modify

Transform function

If you need more complicated filtering abillities or just do whatever you want with the data you can use transformFunction option. You should provide a stringified javascript function that will get the data as parameters and return transformed data. The data format is very similar to the JSON format of the datasets or crawler results only all the nested objects (objects and arrays) are flattened. It is basically an array of objects (items) with flattend fields, let's call it row-object format.

    "sku": "234234234",
    "country": "US",
    "price": 20.99,
    "sizes/0": "S",
    "sizes/1": "M",
    "sizes/2": "L",
    "sizes/3": "XL"
    "sku": "123123123",
    "country": "UK",
    "price": 48.49,
    "sizes/0": "M",
    "sizes/2": "XL"

The function should always return an array in the row-object format which is what will be first converted to rows format and then imported to the sheet. The parameters differ based on the mode:

  • append: The function will receive an object with spreadsheetData and datasetData properties as parameter. spreadsheetData is row-object is an array from the data you already have in the spreadsheet. datasetData is an row-object array of the items from dataset or crawler execution and second .
  • replace: The function will receive an object with datasetData properties as parameter. It is a row-object array of the items from dataset or crawler execution.
  • modify: The function will receive an object with spreadsheetData properties as parameter. It is a row-object array from the data you already have in the spreadsheet.
  • read: Works the same as modify.

Example of usage with append mode (let's imagine we want always only the cheapest product for each country):

({ datasetData, spreadsheetData }) => {
    // First we put the data together into one array
    const allData = datasetData.concat(spreadsheetData);

    // We define an object that will hold a state about which item is the cheapest for each country
    const stateObject = {};

    // Now let's loop over the data and update the object
    allData.forEach((item) => {
        // If the item doesn't have price or country field, we will throw it away
        if (!item.price || ! return;

        // If the state doesn't hold the country, we will add the first item there to hold the current position of cheapest item
        if (!stateObject[]) {
            stateObject[] = item;
        } else if (item.price < stateObject[].price) {
            // If the state already holds the country, lets compare if the new item is cheaper than the old and if so, replace them
            stateObject[] = item;

    // Once we went through all the item, let's convert our state object back to the right array format
    const finalData = Object.values(stateObject);
    return finalData;

Crawler webhook

If you are using Apify crawlers, you can add a finish webhook to the crawler so that data will be imported to the spreadsheet each time a crawler run will finish. For the first time you need to run this actor manually so you properly authorize and authenticate.

To set up the webhook, you need to go to advanced settings of your crawler, find Finish webhook URL field and paste there an API URL that runs the actor. Use this URL and simply change the token to your Apify token that you can find in your Account => Integrations tab.<YOUR_API_TOKEN>

Then you need to add an input for the actor to the Finish webhook data. It should be a standard JSON input as specified above just without the datasetOrExecutionId field because it is automatically extracted from the webhook. Simple Finish webhook data can look like this:

{"mode": "append", "spreadsheetId": "1oz8YzfE5gVw84qWAywlugH0ddrkc1FyAe1aEO4TFTjA"}